is any substance that produces energy/heat/power either by itself or by combustion of other substances.
E.g. Wood, diesel and biogas.
Types of fuel
- Solid fuel - wood, coal, charcoal.
- Liquid fuel - Petroleums (petrol, diesel, kerosene), alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol).
- Fuel gas - coal gas, water gas, syngas, biogas.
- Bio fuel - ethanol made from sugar wastes.
- Fossil fuel - formed from fossilised remains of plants and animals.
is the total quantity of heat produced by complete combustion of unit mass in air. Expressed as kcal/m3
or British Thermal Unit/Cubic Foot.
1 kcal = 3.96567 BTU.
is produced by passing steam over red-hot coke using the endothermic reaction. It is flammable.
carbon monoxide (CO) + hydrogen (H2
is produced by passing insufficient air over red-hot coke. It is both flammable and inflammable.
carbon monoxide (CO) + Nitrogen (N2
is produced by destructive distillation (heating in absence of air). It is flammable.
Hydrogen + methane + ethylene + acetylene + CO + nitrogen.
is produced from petroleum and composed mostly of methane (83%) with least amounts of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
is produced from petroleum and mixture of mostly propane (C3
) and butane (C4
), with least amounts of other hydrocarbons from C2
Compressed natural gas (CNG)
is produced from petroleum and composed mostly of methane (CH4
) with 85%.
Bio gas or Gobar gas
is produced from organic wastes. Composition of Methane (CH4
) + Carbon dioxide (CO2
) + Hydrogen (H2
) + Nitrogen (N2
is the visible part of the combustion. It has 3 parts.
- Inner part - least temperature and black due to pressure of unburnt particles.
- Middle part - hot + biggest part, luminous (emits light), limited oxygen supply and yellow due to incomplete combustion.
- Outer part - hottest part, non-luminous, full oxygen supply and blue due to complete combustion.