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Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus River Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization.
  • Archaeological excavations are the major sources of knowledge about this Civilization.
  • Inscriptions was the best source of information for depicting India’s ancient history
  • It was discovered in 1921.
  • Drainage system was the main characteristic, town planning was secondary.
  • It is known as Pre-Aryan Civilization because of the evidence of copper.
  • They knew the use of gold, silver, copper, bronze but not iron.
  • Their main occupation was agriculture.
  • The know the game of dice.
  • They had trading with Mesopotamia.
  • Dholavira was one of the Indus cities known for water management.
  • The famous bull-seal was found in Harappa.
  • Seal was primarily used to signify property ownership.
  • The number 16 was the dominant used for weights and measures.
  • They use mostly copper, tin, bronze to make tools & weapons.
  • Buffalo, sheep, dog, pic are the their domestic animals.
  • The Harappan sites Mohenjodaro and Harappa not present in India.
  • The seals found at Mohenjodaro is similar to the seals found at Sumeria.
  • The houses built of bricks.
  • Neolithic Age is related to this Civilization.
  • The great bath of this Civilization was discovered in Mohenjodaro.
  • Mohenjodaro is also called as mount of the dead.
  • The Great Granary of the Indus Valley civilization was found in Mohenjodaro.
  • The famous figure of a dancing girl found in the excavations of Mohenjodaro was made up of bronze
  • The stone age had the first domestic was sheep.
  • The earliest evidence of silver in India is found in the Harappan culture.
  • Nomad man started settling in Neolithic Age.
  • Indus Valley Civilization is also known as Harappan culture due to the most important evidence of the achievements of this civilization have been excavated from Harappa
  • It was flourished during 2500 - 1750 B.C.
  • The Harappans extensively used burnt bricks because they provide defense against floods, security and longevity.
  • From the scattered skeletal remains of the Harappan found at different sites, the most appropriate conclusion to be drawn would be that there was great epidemic.
  • On the basis of available evidence, the Indus civilization contributed two important things to mankind which were wheat and cotton
  • Rakhal Das Banerji (archaeologist) initially discovered the Mohenjodaro site of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • John Marshall, R.D. Benerjee, Dayaram Sahni were associated with the first excavations carried out Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
  • Mohenjodaro buildings were of varying sizes, was a well planned city, Bathrooms were important features of most houses
  • Kalibangan was the Harappan site showing evidence of two cultural phases, Harappan and pre-Harappan.
  • The existence of cat is doubtful in this Civilization.
  • Lothal, the Harappan sites had a dock.
  • The site of Harappa is located on the bank of river Ravi.
  • Bull, Elephant, Rhinoceros the figure/figures animal(s) is/are found on the Indus seals.
  • The God with three heads and horns, surrounded by animals, represented on a seal from Mohenjodaro is said to be Pashupati.
  • The dockyard at Lothal is connected through a channel to the river Bhogavo.
  • The Harappan civilization covered an extensive area of present South Asia. The geographic space covered by this civilization included Punjab, Sindh, a part of Northwestern frontier, Kathiawar and part of Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
  • Harappan settlement features, The citadel was walled but the lower town was not walled, Houses generally had separate bathing areas and toilets, Doorways and windows generally faced the side lines and rarely opened onto the main streets.
  • Harappan settlement - River (Mohenjodaro - Indus, Rupar - Sutlej, Kalibangan - Ghaggar, Harappa - Ravi, Alamgipur - Hindon).
  • The inhabitants of Harappa grew and used cotton.
  • In Kalibangan, most of the constructions was done by using mud bricks, The inhabitants knew the use of geometrical designs.
  • Palaeolithic graves have been found in Guntur and Kurnool districts in South India. Pre-historic paintings have been found in Kaimur range and Mizapur districts. The Cooper age and the early Iron Age can be distinguished in North India. However, the Iron Age immediately succeeded the Stone Age in South India.
  • The floor of the Great Bath was made of burnt brick.
  • Indus Valley Civilization was spread over: Along Indus river
  • The people of this civilization were the earliest to make use of cotton. It had trade links by sea with other regions. Existence of street lighting has been revealed in the excavations.
  • Use the plough has been evidenced at Kalibangan
  • First true arches presents the most significant feature
  • At Surkotada, Harappan site have traces of a horse been found.
  • The source of the blue gem stone, lapis lazuli, for the people of Harappan culture, was Afghanistan.
  • During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India. It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene.
  • Traces of Barley, Mustard, Sesamum has been found but not sugarcane.
  • The greatest invention of man in Paleolithic Age was Fire
  • With Mesolithic periods we associate the ‘Microlith’ implements.
  • The Harappa settlement is divided into two sections, one smaller but higher and the other much larger but lower. Archaeologists designate these as the citadel and the lower town respectively. Both were walled. Several buildings were built on platforms, which served as foundations.
  • With neolithic period do we associate the “Megaliths”.
  • When the first metal tool came into being it was used for Clearing jungles.
  • Ancient site - archeological finding (Lothal - dockyard, Kalibangan - ploughed field, Dholavira - Terracotta replica of a plough, Banawali - An inscription comprising ten large sized signs of the Harappan script).
  • Harappan site - state (Kalibangan - Rajasthan, Mohenjodaro - Sind, Rangpur - Punjab, Surkotda - Gujarat
  • Important finds - Sites (Dockyard - Lothal, Ploughed field - kalibangan, Horse - Sarkotada, Great Bath - Mohenjodaro)



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