Sun, 20 Jun
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Solar System
universe
  • The sun, eight planets, satellites and other celestial bodies (asteroids and meteoroids) form the Solar System
  • The sun is at an average distance of about 93,000,000 miles (150 million KM) away from Earth.
  • Aryabhata was a famous astronomer of ancient India.
  • All nine planets move around the sun in fixed paths.
  • Light travels at the speed about 300,000 km per second.
  • The light of sun takes about 8 minutes to reach the earth.
  • Our earth has only one satellite, that is moon which is about 3,84,400 km away from us.
  • Neil Armstrong was the first man to step on the surface of moon on 20 July 1969
0. Sun
  • Age: 4.603 billion years
  • Radius: 695,508 km (43,450 miles)
  • Surface temperature: 5,778 K
  • Mass: 1.989 × 10^30 kg (Occupies 99.85% in solar system)
  • Distance to Earth: 149,597,870 km (92,960,116 miles)
  • Chemical Composition: 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and 2.5% of other elements
  • The sun rays take 8 minutes to reach the earth
  • Sun's Gravity keeps solar system together (90 kg on Earth = 2,520 kg on Sun)
1. Mercury
  • Romans named it after their swift-footed messenger god.
  • Smallest planet.
  • Closest planet to the sun.
  • Surface Gravity: 3.7 m/s^2.
  • It has magnetic field.
2. Venus
  • Named for the Roman goddess of love and beauty.
  • Second planet from the sun.
  • Terribly hot (even hotter than Mercury), with toxic atmosphere.
  • Venus and Earth are often called twins because they are similar in size, mass, density, composition and gravity.
  • Magnetic field: 0.000015 times that of Earth's field.
3. Earth
  • Third planet from the sun.
  • Two-thirds of the planet is covered by Ocean.
  • Rich in life-sustaining nitrogen and oxygen.
  • It's not a perfect sphere (squashed sphere).
  • The hottest spot is in Libya.
  • The coldest place is in Antarctica.
4. Mars
  • Named for the Roman god of war.
  • Fourth planet from the sun.
  • A.K.A Red Planet.
  • Has both the highest mountain and lowest valley in solar system.
  • It's a cold and dusty place.
5. Jupiter
  • Named for Ruler of the Roman gods.
  • Biggest planet in solar system.
  • Fifth planet from the sun.
  • Mostly gaseous world, mostly with hydrogen and helium.
  • Has Great Red Spot, a giant storm which has raged for hundreds of years.
  • Has a strong magnetic field.
  • Has dozens of moons.
6. Saturn
  • Named for Roman god of agriculture
  • Sixth planet from the sun.
  • It is known most for its rings made of ice and rock.
  • The gaseous planet is mostly hydrogen and helium.
  • It has numerous moons.
7. Uranus
  • Named for personification of heaven in ancient myth.
  • Seventh planet from the sun.
  • It's the only giant planet whose equator is nearly at right angles to its orbit.
  • Methane in the atmosphere gives Uranus its blue-green tint.
  • It has numerous moons and faint rings.
8. Neptune
  • Named for Roman god of water.
  • Eighth planet from the sun.
  • Known for strong winds.
  • It is far out and cold.
  • Discovered in the year 1846.
# Planets Summary:
Orbit
(Earth's)
Day
(Earth's)
Distance
(AU)
Radius
(Earth's)
Mass
(Earth's)
Rotation
(Earth's)
Moons Orbital
Inclination
Orbital
Eccentricity
Obliquity Density
(g/cm3)
Sun -NA- -NA- 0 109 332,800 25-36* 9 -NA- -NA -NA- 1.410
Mercury 88 Days 58.6 Days 0.39 0.38 0.05 58.8 0 7 0.2056 0.1° 5.43
Venus 225 Days 241 Days 0.72 0.95 0.89 244 0 3.394 0.0068 177.4° 5.25
Earth 365.24 Days 23 hrs, 56 min 1.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1 0.000 0.0167 23.45° 5.52
Mars 687 Days 24 hrs, 37 min 1.5 0.53 0.11 1.029 2 1.850 0.0934 25.19° 3.95
Jupiter 11.9 Yrs 9.8 Hrs 5.2 11 318 0.411 16 1.308 0.0483 3.12° 1.33
Saturn 29.5 Days 10.5 Hrs 9.5 9 95 0.428 18 2.488 0.0560 26.73° 0.69
Uranus 84 Yrs 18 Hrs 19.2 4 17 0.748 15 0.774 0.0461 97.86° 1.29
Neptune 165 Yrs 19 Hrs 30.1 4 17 0.802 8 1.774 0.0097 29.56° 1.64
Pluto 248 Yrs 6.4 Days 39.5 0.18 0.002 0.267 1 17.15 0.2482 119.6° 2.03
Note:
  • AU = astronomical unit - The average distance from the Earth to the Sun; 1 AU is 149,597,870 kilometers (92,960,116 miles).

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