Indian constitution has established an integrated judicial system.
  1. Supreme Court
  2. High Court
  3. Subordinate Court
1. Supreme Court
  • Established on 26 January 1960 in New Delhi.
  • There is only 1 court in India.
  • Judges appointmented by President.
  • Judges retire on attaining the age of 65 years.
  • Judges can't be transferred and can't be promoted
  • Judges can't do their practice after retirement.
  • Supreme Court only has the power to take decisions regarding constitutions.
2. High Court
  • There are 25 courts in India (including AP).
  • Judges appointmented by President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and Governor of the concerned state.
  • Judges retire on attaining the age of 62 years.
  • Judges can't do his legal practice during his tenure. But can do this after his tenure in any High Court or Supreme Court (no practices in courts below High Court).
  • Judges can be transferred to other courts and promoted up-to Judge of the Supreme Court.
  • The High Courts are bounded to obey the decisions of Supreme Court.
  • No power to take decisions regarding constitution
3. Subordinate Court
  • These are subordinate to State High Courts and functions under high court at district and other lower level.
  • District judge is appointmented by the Governor of State with the consultation of High Court.
  • Other judges by the governor of state of consultation with state public service commission.
# Lok Adalats
  • Lok Adalats a.k.a people's court established by the government to settle the disputes through conciliation and compromise. The first Lok Adalat was held in Chennai in 1986. It is presided by sitting or retired judicial officer as chairman and two other members. There is no court fee. The decision of Lok Adalat's is binding on the parties to the dispute.