Based on the sources for the uplifting of the air, there are three main types of rainfall:
  1. Convectional Rainfall: The Sun heats the ground and then water evaporates. As water vapor rises, it cools. When water vapor cools, it condenses and forms droplets (form clouds and fall to the Earth as rain). Usually comes where the Equator near places (hot places).
  2. Cyclonic/Frontal Rainfall: A mass of hot, humid air meets a mass of cold air. The mass of hot air weighs less and rises above the mass of cold air. When it rises, it cools. Then clouds form and it rains. It takes place at the boundaries.
  3. Orographic/Relief Rainfall: Hot, humid air from the sea reaches a mountain. The air rises and cools. Clouds for, and it rains on the windward side of the mountain, the side which receives the ocean air, it does not rain on the other side. It takes place at mountainous regions.
# Key Points
  • Rainfall is also known as Precipitation
  • Convectional rainfall cause thunderstorms.
  • Top rainfall places: Mawsynram (Meghalaya State, India), Cherrapuni (Meghalaya State, India) and Tutendo (Colombia, South America) etc.
  • Earth quake an cause a tsunami
  • Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.
  • Leeward is the direction downwind from the point of reference. Leeward region of mountains generally remains dry as compared to the windward.
  • Air temperature decreases as we move from the equator to poles.

Cloud is a visible aggregate of minute droplets of water or particles of ice or a mixture of both floating in the free air.
  1. Low-level clouds (0 - 1950 meters): Stratus, Cumulus, Cumulonimbus and stratocumulus.
  2. Mid-level clouds (1950- 6000 meters): Altcumulus, Altostratus and Nimbostratus
  3. High-level clouds (6000 meters above): Cirrocumulus, Cirus and Cirrostratus.
Cumulus & Cumulonimbus are occur in all types of clouds.