Matter is any substance that has mass and volume (occupies space).
Classification of matter
- Physical classification
- Chemical classification
- Pure substance
- Impure substance (Mixture)
1.A. Solid state
- The matter which has definite shape, mass and volume.
- Intermolecular force is strong.
- E.g. bat and marble.
1.B. Liquid state
- The matter which has indefinite shape and definite volume.
- Intermolecular force is neither strong nor weak.
- E.g. water and oil.
1.C. Gaseous state
- The matter which has neither definite shape nor definite volume.
- Intermolecular force is weak.
- E.g. oxygen and hydrogen.
2.A. Pure substance
- It consists of only one kind of substance and can't split into more than one kind of substances.
- E.g. copper, nitrogen and silicon.
- An element is a substance that is made from one type of atom.
- E.g. gold, carbon and boron.
- It is an element with good conductivity of heat and electricity.
- These are electropositive elements tend to lose electrons to form positive ions.
- They are solid, lustrous, malleable and ductile.
- E.g. gold, silver and copper.
- It is an element without conductivity of heat and electricity.
- These are electronegative elements tend to gain electrons to form negative ions.
- They are non-lustrous and brittle.
- It can be found in solid, liquid and gaseous states.
- E.g. carbon, oxygen and nitrogen.
- It has properties of both metal and non-metals.
- It is generally a semi-conductor.
- E.g. boron, silicon and germanium.
- It is the combination of two or more than two different elements in definite proportion of mass.
- E.g. water, sugar and salt.
2.A.II.a. Organic Compound
- Compounds that are obtained from living sources.
- E.g. carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
2.A.II.b. Inorganic Compound
- Compounds that are obtained from non-living sources.
- E.g. salt, carbon dioxide and washing soda.
2.B. Impure substance (mixture)
- It is a combination of two or more substances with indefinite proportion of mass.
- E.g. Petrol, milk and cement
- It has uniform composition of mixture and no visible separation.
- E.g. salted water.
- It has non-uniform composition of mixture and visible separation.
- E.g. iron particles in sand.